Information sheet on the subject of tattoo


Tattoos and body piercing are in vogue, in, hipp, hot, just great. This is the case for many, since tattoos and body piercing have left social shadows and into the world of music stars, Film and sports have moved in. Before you decide to take such a step, you should be clear about a few important facts.

The decision

A decision without a question mark is important.

You should also think about it, that the decision for a tattoo or piercing has a direct impact on your own body and health. Who is not sure, should just wait, until his decision has no more question marks. Good friends always understand that.

Peer pressure with consequences – I want that?

It is also important, that everyone is clear about it before taking a step, why he wants a tattoo or a piercing. Just, because you want to belong to a certain group of people, you shouldn't do that. Everyone should find themselves more beautiful or feel better with a tattoo or piercing. A tattoo is a piece of jewelry, that I have to carry for a lifetime, even if a friendship breaks up, I have to change jobs, my body is getting old.

1 Year no blood donation

Blood donation is not possible up to one year after tattooing.

Allergic reactions are possible.

In some people, the body is allergic to the color in the skin. Then the body tries to repel the tattoo.

It is not entirely without pain!

Tattooing and body piercing is not painless. How much pain is felt, but is very different individually. Some feel no more than a tingling sensation. The body part is also crucial. Gives, where the skin is thin, experience has shown that pain is felt more than in other parts of the body.

Tattoo removal is not always safe.

Removing a tattoo is complicated and may leave permanent skin discoloration.

Tattoo removal is expensive.

Removing a tattoo is up to twenty times more expensive, like having a tattoo attached.

No tattoo or piercing for diabetes and other diseases.

Danger! People with diabetes, Infectious diseases, Hemophilia and blood addiction disease and people, who are receiving thrombosis treatment, must not have a tattoo or body piercing. In the case of venereal diseases, no piercing is allowed.

The health factor

Pay attention to sterile instruments.

The use of non-sterile instruments, from. B. Needles, piercing or tattooing can lead to serious infections, u. a. Hepatitis, Tetanus or AIDS.


Danger! People with diabetes, Infectious diseases, Hemophilia and blood addiction disease and people, who are receiving thrombosis treatment, should not have a tattoo or body piercing done if possible. The health risks are not the same for all people with these diseases, but generally much higher than that of healthy people. Intimate jewelry should not be used for venereal diseases. Anyone who definitely has the desire for body jewelry, should seek medical advice. Improper work can have serious consequences.

Tattooing carries the risk of infection with AIDS, Hepatitis B and C and tetanus. Wound infections, Contact dermatitis, Allergies and scarring are possible.

Without careful cleaning and care of the new tattoo, there is a constant risk of wound infection. Rejection reactions of the body can occur. There is an oversensitivity to one of the components, which are introduced into the skin during tattooing, severe allergic reactions can occur. Cases of allergic contact dermatitis have been reported. Sarcoid-like granulomas are also present, these are new inflammatory tissues, in the form of long thick scarring on the side of tattoos. There have been reports of tissue damage from iron oxides after the individual has undergone a special X-ray examination. The iron oxides were part of eye tattoos.

How do I recognize a good studio??

The health is the most important thing. Tattoo and body piercing should be in the hands of experts. But how do I find the right studio? How do I know, whether not only beautiful pictures are created there, but also the medical or. health issues are dealt with properly? You will find a few decision aids here.

Pay attention to brightness and cleanliness.

Visit different studios and take a good look around. Be sure to, that the work area is really clean. The work area should also be bright and well lit.. If you refuse a conversation in a studio about cleanliness and infection prevention, you should choose a different studio.

A sterilizer must be there.

In any case, a sterilization device should be found in a good studio. The instruments used must be sterilized after each customer, before they can be used again. This also applies to instruments, the ready, but have not been used.

Minors need parental consent.

Must for tattoo and body piercing, like a medical operation, a declaration of consent can be given. That should take place beforehand. Studios with a good reputation definitely reject it, To tattoo or pierce minors without their parents' consent. Because that's forbidden. Even for shooting an ear hole you need this consent form. Legal questions should always be clarified beforehand.

Disposal of equipment and excess paint.

Disposable devices, from. B. sterile needles, really should only be used once and then disposed of in secured containers. Tattoo needles must not be dipped directly into the ink bottle. Before the tattooing process, the necessary amount of color must be removed from the bottle. colour, that is no longer needed, must never be returned to the color bottle. It must also be disposed of.

Gloves must be worn when tattooing and piercing.

Before a specialist gets to work, he must wash his hands thoroughly and in any case put on latex gloves. The gloves must be worn throughout the process. If the work is interrupted or the tattooist takes hold of foreign objects e.g.. B. the phone, so he has to put on new gloves in any case, before continuing work.

What happens when tattooing?

Professionals tattoo with a special device.

An electrical device is used for tattooing today, that with a frequency of 50 to 3000 Vibrations vibrate vertically per minute. The color is up to the second layer of skin, introduced the dermis. The outline of the tattoo is created with a single needle. A needle block of five to seven needles fills the colored areas. The depth of the punctures can be adjusted and adjusted exactly to the skin density. This procedure is mainly used by professionals.

Tattoo removal

Self-experiments can lead to serious damage: hands off!

Who wants to get rid of his tattoo again, often has to find out, that it's not that easy. In any case, it is much more expensive, than getting a tattoo. But also, who wants to save costs, shouldn't be fooling around with yourself. The consequences are obvious and usually end up in ugly scars and skin discoloration. It is better, get advice and treatment from a specialist. Also a previous one “Cost estimate” is advisable.

Laser removes tattoos gently.

The most effective method, to remove a tattoo, is ruby ​​laser therapy. With ruby ​​laser therapy it is possible, Remove tattoos gently. The results are often surprisingly good.

The body's own defense ensures that the color is transported away from the skin.

Under normal conditions, the body is unable to excrete the dye accumulations in a wide variety of skin layers. It encapsulates the colors with a solid layer of collagen fibers. That makes a tattoo just so permanent. The ruby ​​laser destroys these collagen fibers and breaks the dyes into tiny parts. Now the body's defense system can easily remove these small pieces of paint.

Several sessions are necessary.

The laser works with an exact wavelength. For this reason, the surrounding skin areas are not damaged. The whole process is almost painless. No scar tissue is formed. The treated area immediately becomes lighter and then scabs. Only when the scab falls off (just don't scratch it) you can see, how much color the body “eliminated” hat. This way, little by little, in several sessions, the tattoo removed.


Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver, which in most cases is caused by viruses. Depending on the pathogen, acute and chronic inflammation can occur. Some forms of hepatitis develop with little discomfort and heal with appropriate treatment. However, there are also very serious forms with increasing destruction of liver function. The most important preventive measure against hepatitis A and B is vaccination. Unprotected sexual intercourse and the sharing of hypodermic needles should also be avoided.

General principles and forms of progress in hepatitis

With inflammation of the liver, the liver cells gradually lose their function. This can have far-reaching consequences.

Hepatitis A

The hepatitis A virus is spread by smear infection and contaminated food. The best protection is vaccination.

Hepatitis B

The virus is transmitted through sexual intercourse and through blood. The disease can be chronic. The best protection is vaccination.

The virus is transmitted during sex and through blood.

Hepatitis B is caused by infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) triggered. The virus is transmitted during sexual intercourse or through contaminated blood supplies and shared cutlery (z.B. in drug addicts).

Injury to medical personnel. With medical personnel, which cares for patients with hepatitis B., there is a risk of infection from an injury with used hypodermic needles. The transmission risk is 30 percent (for comparison: The risk of virus transmission from a needle stick injury is HIV, the causative agent of AIDS, just 0,3 percent).

Tattoo- and acupuncture needles. Even transmission through contaminated (used several times) Tattoo- and acupuncture needles is possible. However, half of the hepatitis B infections transmitted in Central Europe are due to unprotected sexual intercourse.

There is an obligation to register

Hepatitis B is a disease that is notifiable according to the Infection Protection Act. If you suspect hepatitis B, of a diagnosed illness and death from hepatitis B, the doctor must report this to the health department. In addition, a laboratory, that detects an acute infection during a patient's blood test, report this also to the health department.

The diagnosis is confirmed by various laboratory tests.

These non-specific symptoms as well as the medical history survey (z.B. recent needlestick injury) can raise suspicions of hepatitis B.. The diagnosis is confirmed by various blood tests:

  • Increasing the “Liver function tests”, d.h. increased values ​​for the enzymes formed in the liver cells (GOT und GPT)
  • Change of values, with which the blood clotting ability is assessed (z.B. Quick value), because the liver produces many proteins that are necessary for blood to clot
  • Detection of special virus proteins
  • Detection of so-called antibodies against the hepatitis B virus (Antibodies are proteins, which forms the immune system to protect against invading pathogens)
  • Evidence of genetic material (DNA) des Hepatitis-B-Virus

The course is very different.

After the appearance of the non-specific symptoms (which do not have to occur in every patient) the further course of acute hepatitis B is very different: of a disease without any symptoms (at about 65 Percent of patients) up to liver failure (at 0,1 – 1 Percent of patients).

The symptoms are treated.

Treatment of acute hepatitis B is primarily symptomatic, that means the complaints and symptoms existing in the individual patient are treated (z.B. Administration of medication for nausea). It is not initially necessary to switch off the virus with medication, because the body usually succeeds itself, to fight the pathogen. In these cases, acute hepatitis B usually heals without consequences.

Antivirus only if there is a risk of liver failure.

Therapy with medication is required in patients with impending liver failure, which prevent the virus from multiplying. A special group of antiviral agents is used, so-called nucleoside analogues, which are built into the genetic material of the virus and thereby make its further multiplication impossible.

5 to 10 Percent become chronically ill

At 5 to 10 Percent of patients have an acute hepatitis B chronic course. In these cases, the long-lasting inflammation leads to changes in the liver tissue up to and including liver cirrhosis.

There are different complaint patterns in the chronic course.

Chronic hepatitis B is diagnosed, if an acute illness does not heal, but symptoms of illness such as fatigue, Exhaustion, Feeling of pressure in the right upper abdomen, joint- and muscle pain and itching persist. The chronic disease can also go without any complaints. Blood tests continuously show increased liver values. The condition of the liver tissue and any existing high vein pressure can be assessed using ultrasound. To be able to estimate the extent of liver damage, it is necessary to take a small tissue sample for the histological examination. This tissue removal can be done under local anesthesia.

Massive antivirals are used in the treatment.

Hepatitis C

The acute infection often runs without complaints. The frequently occurring chronic courses are feared.

The virus is transmitted during sex and through blood

Hepatitis C is caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) transfer. The transmission takes place via unprotected sexual intercourse as well as contaminated blood, Contaminated spray cutlery for drug use and for medical staff due to stab wounds with contaminated needles or. contaminated instruments. However, blood supplies have been around for about 10 Years tested for contamination with the hepatitis C virus, so an infection in this way is now very rare.

Injury to medical personnel. The risk of infection after a stab injury with a contaminated needle is approximately 3 percent (for comparison: The risk of virus transmission due to a needlestick injury is hepatitis B. 30 percent, with HIV, the causative agent of AIDS, just 0,3 percent).

Tattoo- and acupuncture needles. Even transmission through contaminated (used several times) Tattoo- and acupuncture needles is possible.

There is an obligation to register.

Hepatitis C is a disease that is reportable under the Infection Protection Act. If you suspect hepatitis C, the doctor must report this to the health department if the illness is diagnosed reliably and if he dies from hepatitis C.. In addition, a laboratory, which detects an acute infection during a patient's blood test, report this also to the health department.

Are worldwide 3 Percent of the population affected.

In Northern Europe and also in Germany are about 0,5 Percent of the population infected with the hepatitis C virus, in the Mediterranean countries, for example 2 percent. This percentage is worldwide 3 percent.

incubation period 15 to 160 Days.

The incubation period (Time between infection and onset of the disease) is 15 to 160 Days.

Mostly there are no complaints.

About 85 Percent of acute hepatitis C is without any symptoms. At about 15 On the other hand, percent of those affected experience fatigue, Weakness and / or jaundice (see. General principles and forms of progress in hepatitis). Liver failure is not expected. The frequently occurring chronic course of the disease is problematic (see below).

The diagnosis is confirmed by various laboratory tests.

If you suspect hepatitis C (z.B. in a drug addict with jaundice) helps a laboratory test, confirm or rule out the suspected diagnosis. These include e.g.. B.:

  • Increasing the “Liver function tests”, d.h. increased values ​​for the enzymes formed in the liver cells (GOT und GPT).
  • Change of values, with which the blood clotting ability is assessed (z.B. Quick value), because the liver produces many proteins that are necessary for blood to clot.
  • Detection of special virus proteins.
  • Detection of so-called antibodies against the hepatitis C virus (Antibodies are proteins, which forms the immune system to protect against invading pathogens).
  • Evidence of genetic material (DNA) 100-des-hepatitis viruses.

50 to 90 Percent become chronically ill.

At 50 to 90 Percent of patients become chronic hepatitis C chronic. In addition to the symptoms of acute illness, the following complications may also arise:

  • Cryoglobulinemia (Circulatory disorders, which are caused by cold-activated antibodies)
  • Glomerulonephritis
  • Panarteriitis nodosa (an inflammatory artery disease)
  • Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (a tumor of the lymph nodes, “Lymph node cancer”)
  • Immunthyreopathy (thyroid dysfunction caused by regulatory disorders of the immune system)

Additional diagnostics are required.

The blood test shows findings comparable to those of the acute illness. It is also important for the therapy of chronic hepatitis C., to determine the so-called genotype of the hepatitis C virus, that is, the composition of its genetic material (DNA) to examine more closely. Ultrasound is used to assess the condition of the liver tissue and to examine the blood flow to the liver.

30 Percent of those affected develop cirrhosis of the liver.

Therapy for chronic hepatitis C is required, when the conversion of specific liver tissue into connective tissue threatens the development of cirrhosis. Are from cirrhosis of the liver 30 Percent of patients with chronic hepatitis C affected. From the patient, in which cirrhosis of the liver develops, also get sick annually 3 Percent of liver cancer (“Liver cancer”). It should be taken into account, that between the hepatitis C infection and the appearance of cirrhosis typical symptoms of the disease 20 to 30 Years pass.

The diagnosis of cirrhosis of the liver is possible by means of ultrasound examination and the histological examination of a tissue sample from the liver. A tissue sample can be taken under local anesthesia.

The therapy is often successful.

With this combination therapy, 42 to 90 Percent of patients achieve elimination of the virus from the blood. Patients have a particularly good chance of responding to therapy, those with a virus of the genotype 2 or 3 are infected.

The last therapy option is a liver transplant. This should be considered in patients, where there is a risk of liver failure.

Avoid contagion.

There is no active or passive immunization for hepatitis C.. The only protection against infection is therefore to avoid the risk of infection:

  • avoid unprotected sex.
  • no sharing of needles.
  • avoid needlestick injuries.

Hepatitis D

Hepatitis D only occurs together with hepatitis B., because otherwise the virus cannot multiply. Chronic courses are common.

Hepatitis E

The virus is mainly found on the Indian subcontinent. Mostly mild infections can be severe in pregnant women.


This liver inflammation is caused by a misdirected immune system. Antibodies attack the liver cells.


Tetanus bacteria produce a strong poison.

The tetanus- or tetanus pathogen is an anaerobic and secretes one of the strongest poisons. This poison spreads along the nerve pathways and blocks the synapses in the spinal cord and brain. Synapses are called the locations of a nerve cell, where the transmission of impulses from one nerve cell to the other takes place.

Breathing is blocked.

After the blockage of the synapses, the seizures typical of tetanus occur, in which the entire skeletal muscles are involved. The respiratory muscles are also affected by the seizures, there is a possibility of suffocation.

Infections are discovered late.

Although there is a vaccine against tetanus, infections are occasionally life-threatening. That’s because, that the pathogen is often absorbed through the smallest of injuries and the incubation period between 4 and 21 Days. For this reason, protection against tetanus is often freshened up prophylactically in the event of minor injuries.

Immediate measures in the event of a tetanus infection.

If someone has contracted a tetanus infection, the entry point of the pathogen must be removed immediately. At the same time, vaccination is carried out with tetanus serum. Taking high-dose Valium or Curare is said to prevent seizures through complete muscle paralysis (paralyzed muscles cannot cramp). The person concerned must be ventilated mechanically.

Wound infections

Infections are common with secondary wound healing.

Infections are the biggest problem with wound healing disorders. Are common, especially secondary wounds full of pathogenic germs, that make healing difficult.

Not every germ makes you sick.

However, the mere presence of germs does not automatically mean, that a wound infection occurs. To do this, a number of additional conditions must be met. In this context, it is important to::

  • how many germs are present.
  • what kind of germs are.
  • how high the toxicity (virulence) the germ is.
  • what kind of wound is, from. B. jagged or smooth, nekrotisch (covered with dead tissue) or fresh.
  • whether there are foreign objects in the wound.
  • how well the victim's immune system works.

Wounds are an ideal breeding ground for pathogens.

It becomes clear: the higher the number of germs, and the more aggressive these germs are, the greater the risk of infection. Also contamination from tissue debris, Faeces (from. B. with pressure ulcers), Dust and soil are an ideal breeding ground for germs. Is the state of health of the person affected already affected?, or does he have an underlying disease (from. B. Diabetes), a wound infection is more likely, than in an otherwise completely healthy person.

A strong immune system is the best protection.

How an infection goes, depends on the type of pathogen. Some of them appear to be infectious simply because they are present. Others secrete poisons, that have a damaging local effect. However, these poisons also become active throughout the body via the blood and lymph and can lead to sepsis. Sepsis is a common infection, which is sometimes called blood poisoning. It is favored by a weak immune system.

The causative agents come from different families.

A basic distinction is made between three different types of pathogens that trigger wound infection:

  • bacteria,
  • Viruses and
  • Mushrooms.

Allergic contact dermatitis

The symptoms appear 24 to 48 Hours on.

Allergic contact dermatitis is the most common type of eczema. It arises 24 to 48 Hours after contact with the allergen and manifests itself in the area of ​​exposure of the allergen in redness, Edema and vesicles, that can burst and wet. These foci can then crust over or form scales.

In the case of chronic courses, skin changes also show up in places, who had no contact with the allergen.

Contact eczema develops acutely there on the body, where the skin has come into contact with the allergen. The face is particularly sensitive. There are also chronic forms of contact eczema. In this case, the allergens are transported on via the lymph channels or the blood vessels.

Then allergic skin reactions also occur in places, who have not come into contact with the allergen. Chronic contact eczema have a slightly changed appearance. The initial inflammatory response regresses. The herds tend to, To form dandruff. The epidermis develops a particularly large amount of cornea in an excessive reaction.

The trigger must be found.

The therapy is preceded by a careful medical history. It is important to determine exactly, which substances from the daily life of the person concerned are possible allergens. Localization of eczema, and the time of occurrence are important pointers.

The possibilities are nearly unlimited. A myriad of substances and agents come into question in this context, among other things, hair care products, Cosmetics, Anoint, Creams, Sprays, Jewellery, Eyeglass frames, Hearing aids, Watches and all kinds of clothing.

The patch test can possibly detect the allergen.

The search for the possible triggers revealed some substances or substances as a possibility, a patch test can be carried out. In this test, the suspect substances are applied to a patch. The patch is then applied to the skin with a clip. This usually happens on your back. The patch stays there for 1 to 3 Days. It must not be removed too early, because the reaction has to develop first. After that you can see the reaction of the skin “read off”.

Disability and obligation to register.

If an allergy test is found, that the trigger is one “Occupational material” is, the doctor must notify the responsible trade association. The notification must also be made, if there is only suspicion. In the further course it must be clarified, whether the person concerned can continue to practice the profession. Can't do that, there is a disability.

Most often corticosteroids are used.

Treatment of contact eczema is based on avoiding the triggering allergen. This is the prerequisite for long-term successful treatment. Medicinally, corticosteroids are usually used. They can be applied in the form of ointments. In the case of weeping eczema, moist envelopes with the drug are recommended, in the case of very dry forms, fatty ointments.

The skin


The dermis, or corium, is an elastic layer of skin, which contains a high proportion of loosely woven connective tissue. Depending on the location, it can be of different thickness. It is only on the penis and eyelids 0,3 mm thin, during the hand- and soles of the feet up to a dermis 2,4 mm thickness.

The structure of the dermis is also divided into layers, in fact:

  • Papillenschicht (also cone layer) or stratum papillare
  • Reticular layer or stratum.

The papillae increase the tear resistance of the skin.

The papilla layer of the dermis is connected to the basal layer of the epidermis by numerous strip-like extensions. They are called papillae. The papillae increase the contact area between the two layers and thus guarantee the skin's enormous tear resistance.

Tiny blood vessels supply the epidermis and dermis.

The papillae are traversed by fine blood vessels, the capillaries, which provide the epidermis and the dermis with nutrients. The capillaries are also responsible for regulating the body's temperature. When they are hot, they expand and give off heat. In the cold they narrow. This is how they ensure it, that the warmth produced by the organism is mainly preserved inside the body.

The lymphatic system begins in the papillary stratum.

The lymphatic vessels also begin in the area of ​​the papillae. The lymph collects in the lymphatic vessels, a liquid, caused by the escape of blood plasma from the blood vessels. The capillary pressure of the blood vessels increases, this also increases the lymphatic supply. The lymph is collected in the lymphatic system and reintroduced into the blood system in the lymph nodes. The lymphatic system is equally branched, like the blood system.


The papilla layer is full of surprises.

The receptors for heat and cold and the sense of touch are also located in the papilla layer. There is also a number of blood in the free connective tissue- and other cells, u.a. Fibroblasts, Macrophages, Mast cells, Lymphocytes, Plasmazellen, Find granulocytes and monocytes.

The interstitium contains important cells of the immune system. There is between the individual cells “blank”, the so-called interstitium. This space is filled with a jelly-like liquid, der Interzellularsubstanz. In this “jelly” the cells can move freely. This is important, because a large part of the cells in the intercellular space are part of the immune defense. They are needed for wound healing and inflammation.

Network layer

There are fewer free cells in the retina of the dermis. To do this, it contains a dense network of collagen fibers parallel to the body surface. The net is filled with elastic connective tissue. Together, this construction brings about the firmness and elasticity of the skin. The connective tissue and collagen fibers align in specific directions in specific directions.

The so-called “Langer's split lines”, which mark the direction of least elasticity of the skin. During operations, the cuts, if possible, set along these lines.

The reason for this is, that the elastic fibers of the skin do not pull the wound apart as much, like with cuts, the against the “Langer's split lines” be set.

Gaping wounds and hypertrophic scarring are avoided.

Skin glands

There are also hair blisters in the dermis, Sweat, Fragrance- and contain sebaceous glands.

The sebaceous glands are usually connected to a hair follicle.

Only on eyes, Eyelids, Lips, Acorn, The penis and labia minora are also independent of hair follicles. The soles of the feet and the palms of the hands have no sebaceous glands. The sebum produced is a mixture of fats, cholesterol, Protein and electrolytes. It prevents the skin from drying out and makes it supple.

The sweat glands are located on the entire surface of the body.

But some areas are not covered here either. This includes the nail bed, the lip margin, the eardrum, the little labia, the clitoris and the acorn. The skin has a total of approximately three million sweat glands. Would you string them all together?, if they had a length of 48 Kilometers.

The acid protection of the skin kills foreign germs.

The sweat, which is produced by the sweat glands, is acidic and has a pH of 4,5. It consists of water, salt, ammonia, Zucker, amino acids, urea, uric acid, Lactic acid and vitamin C.. Sweat plays an important role in regulating body temperature.

Evaporating sweat cools you down.

Waste products can leave the body through sweat. In addition, the skin's protective acid mantle, which is formed from the secretions of the sweat glands, important for killing foreign germs.

The scent glands have lost their natural function in humans.

Human scent glands are also often referred to as apocrine sweat glands. Your execution ducts end in the hair follicles.

You are in the pubic region, the armpits and in the area of ​​the nipples. The fragrance glands only start producing fragrances at the beginning of puberty. It is subject to strong psychological fluctuations. Fragrances play an important role especially in the area of ​​sexual processes in mammals. In humans, this function is only very reduced.


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